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玉山高并两峰寒的博客

Be as you wish to seem.

 
 
 

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失望的村上迷  

2012-10-19 19:19:36|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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http://select.yeeyan.org/view/43290/325749

失望的村上迷 - 玉山高并两峰寒 - 玉山高并两峰寒的博客

 

在今年秋天的东京,过去一周诺贝尔文学奖带来的兴奋与骚动比以往任何一年都要强烈。日本小说家村上春树虽已几度入围提名名单,但今年他是每个人心目中的最佳人选。不过村上春树的全球读者群及文学明星身份无法为传统出版理念所解释,他不是美国人,不用英语写作,作品中没有吸血鬼也没有巫师。在斯德哥尔摩公布结果前夕,即日本当地时间傍晚早些时候,一家主要日本国内电视台播放了一条短片,片中全球各地的村上读者用各种语言表达了对他及其作品的热爱。一位中国读者表示,虽然最近中国与日本因为领土争议纠纷不断,但这丝毫不影响中国读者对村上春树的喜爱,尽管村上春树最近在报纸撰文,呼吁双方摒弃民族主义的劣酒。(据称部分日本报纸于上月在中国被禁,因而这位读者可能没能读到这篇文章。)

说到酒:至少有一家东京酒吧为所谓“村上迷”举办了一场特殊的村上春树诺贝尔奖聚会。我们看到聚会上有村上的主要作品,裱在相框内的作者照片,以及一杯杯喝了一半的红酒啤酒。只有世界杯和奥运会曾制造过类似场景。第一次,庄家、学者、读者、书评人、出版界人士,无论来自日本还是国外,似乎一致相信,这是“他的一年”。但结果不是。中国作家莫言最终获奖,失望的村上迷们唯有扼腕痛惜,然后半心半意地为邻居的获奖鼓掌。“我很高兴获奖者是亚洲人,”一位女性村上迷在回家路上告诉《每日新闻》,一如既往地彬彬有礼。

“创作小说时,我必须潜入一个非常深邃、黑暗、孤独的地方,”在我们初次见面的1999年夏天,村上这样说道,他用这样的画面来形容他的创作过程,自那以后,他也经常在访谈中重复这个比喻。“接着,我必须回来,回到表面。这很危险。而且你必须很强壮,在身体上与心理上都要强壮,这样才能每天如此。”村上的读者也许能立刻辨认出这种描述:他笔下的人物通常也经历相同的过程,不过他们的经历通常更直观,例如井、地铁隧道,以及其他通往异次元的地下通道。在他去年秋天最新出版的个人最长的小说《1Q84》中,女主角,一位健身师和业余杀手,爬下高速公路的太平梯,进入另一个时间扭曲的现实世界,那里有两个月亮、二重身、邪教组织,各种可能或不可能发生在奥威尔式的1984年中的事物。

不出意料,村上唯一也是非常重要的非虚构类作品称为《地下》,这本书详细记录了他对1995年东京地铁毒气事件的受害者与施害者的访问,这是现代日本历史上最黑暗的日子,对,这事件由邪教组织策划执行。但大多数读者不知道的是,村上他自己,不仅仅在书桌前,在生活中亦经历着双重现实。一种在日本;另一个在几乎所有其他地方,但特别是在美国。在这两种现实中,他的行为、声誉以及对两者的认识,在许多方面都截然不同。

我第一次见到村上是在十三年前,在他东京中心的办公室。我当时住在大阪,前去东京是因为一次打赌—确实是,当时一家当地英语杂志的几位编辑安排我访问他,当又好心地打赌我不可能见到他。“他是个隐士,”他们告诉我,这种说法之后也得到我几位日本朋友的证实。

我当时已读过部分村上的短篇及长篇小说,也评论过他最新的作品《奇鸟行状录》,但我不怎么了解这位作者。我封了一个信封,里面包括我出版的几篇短篇小说和一封简单的说明信,寄到了他的办公室。第二个星期我收到了一份传真,上面列出了他有空接受访问的日期,并附上一句:“但你必须到东京来,”就好像我可能觉得那无法办到一样。当时,也就是1987年,我见到的村上,已经出版了在日本售出百万册的畅销书—《挪威的森林》,但他说起这件事的语气相当冷漠,甚至有些不满。“我无法出去吃饭或去火车站而不被人拍照,”他说。“这太可怕了。这样的事永远不会再发生。”这本书带来的媒体轰炸促使村上与他的妻子阳子逃离这个国家,他们先搬去了希腊,随后去了日本,显然那次经历仍会带来痛苦的回忆。(他在销售额上还是预计错了,虽然隐私问题上他是对的。十年以后,当《1Q84》成为他第二本在日本销售过百万的小说后,该书的作者却无处可寻。)

村上对祖国的态度也摇摆不定。他曾说过他非常厌恶日本文学届,因为有各种小圈子和义务责任,他总想“远离日本—先是神户,之后是东京”,他认为自己是职业作家,认真工作、准时交稿的手艺人,那就够了。我问及他的青年时代,他说,当时眼看着1970年代政治抗议被当局强烈打压,而那些抗议的领袖,他的伙伴,纷纷购买西装,变身企业推销员,他们将热情转向赚钱,他感到自己被背叛了。谈到日本文学大师、诺贝尔奖获得者同时也是社会活动家的大江健三郎时,他说:“我觉得他年轻时是位非常强大的作家,但我对政治或发表声明毫无兴趣。我允许他那么做。我关心的只是我的读者。”

“我出版的每一本书,”他提到,“哪怕在它被推广或评论前,都会在日本卖出三十万本。这些人是我的读者。若你是一名作家且你拥有读者,你就拥有一切。你不需要书评人或书评。”当我问及他有可能获得诺贝尔文学奖时,他笑道:“不,我不想获奖。那意味着你完了。”自从那第一次见面以后,我和村上见过很多次,在东京、波士顿、纽约、旧金山。在旧金山,我曾需要在加州大学伯克莱分校,面对超过三千名购票观众(门票一早售罄),与他一同朗诵他的作品,并与他对谈。由于长期居住在东京与纽约,我越来越意识到他分裂的公众形象。在日本,他是畅销商业作家,带有一切与这标签相关的含义:他是表演者,无论在钱财还是其他方面都有能力保护自己的隐私。在世界上其他地方,特别是在美国,他是将东方熔入西方的文学炼金师,他用在故乡日本永远无法提供的热情,尽可能欢迎他的读者。

在日本的村上是个隐士,对某些人,尤其是较年长的读者而言,亦是个过于西化的男孩,或者,就像日本人通常说的—“浑身黄油臭”。我的日本舅舅阿姨曾告诉我,他们根本无法读懂他的散文,那不是真正的日文,说这话时他们都大约六十五。我那七十岁的日裔妈妈曾与我坐在波士顿的家中,面前摊开两本书,一本是文学勇士川端康成的,另一本是村上的。“这,”她说,指着川端康成由传统日本汉字构成的坚忍克制的文字,“这才是日本文学。而这,”她指着村上由平假名与片假名构成的大杂烩般的文字说,“这是其他东西。”平假名与片假名是拼音文字,用于无法用日本汉字表示的词语,或者来自西方的外来词(通常是这种情况)。村上曾说过,通过用英语写他的第一部小说的第一页—然后将其翻译成日文,他找到了自己的声音。(村上也是美国小说的专业翻译。)“这是件奇怪的事,”他经常开玩笑道。“我年纪越大,我的读者越年轻。”

他在日本只举办过一次朗诵会,在神户,在令他的故乡遭受重创的1995年神户大地震以后。他不接受电视或电台访问(“他们会按照他们的需求剪切你说的话,让你显得相当愚蠢”,他对我说),他也不会出现在杂志封面,因为“他们会站在报摊前看着你,然后其他人也会看着你,让你觉得非常不舒服。”简而言之,在日本的村上春树是一个在商业上很成功密码。

但在日本以外,他是随和的公众人物,他发表演讲,签名售书,在最公开的场合出现并致意。在曼哈顿的一家全美连锁书店—邦诺书店里,他戴着摇滚明星般的墨镜,由保镖陪伴着出现,但他一直保持微笑,且与每一只伸到面前的手握手。我曾看见他在旧金山市中心签名将近两个小时,之后在阳子的提醒下,我才想起建议他停下。“我很强壮,你知道的,”他略带揶揄地回答道。在日本以外的地方,村上春树变成了日本,或者至少是他想展示给你看的日本。“我想我正成为某种日本的形象代表,”他几年前在东京办公室的座椅里解释道,一边说一边调整坐姿。“也许是一种文化大使。这是荣幸也是责任,而我是唯一能办到的人。”

当他2006年获得卡夫卡奖时,我收到了大量日本记者的提问,其中一位还请我在我的住所附近喝酒。她想知道我是否与村上有联系,以及他是否会去布拉格领奖。他确实去了,并且之后出现在以色列与西班牙,接受当地的文学最高荣誉,他还就道德议题发表演讲:他声明自己支持在以色列与西班牙受到迫害的人们,同时谴责自己国家在福岛核灾后所采取的核能政策。

他在自己的文化大使身份上的看法是正确的。除了村上,没人能代表日本,如今的日本,在应对混乱的政治问题及来自迅速发展的邻国压力时,仍表现不佳。除了村上,没人能为日本从海外赢得如此多的善意与尊敬,而这正是日本此刻最需要的。但在村上的公众形象与思想中,仍有更深层的部分。加州大学伯克莱分校要求我举办一场现场朗诵及访谈会时,我有所担忧。活动前他们安排我飞到旧金山与村上和阳子见面。村上只和我谈棒球、爵士乐和美国次贷危机。我们丝毫没有提到访谈。最后我鼓起勇气问他,我们在台上应该说什么。“哦,就谈些我们经常谈的东西,罗兰,”他说道。“别担心。”

第二天晚上和我一同出现在舞台上的男人是一位出现的表演家。“我应该在酒吧看岩村明宪与坦帕湾光芒队赢得他的第一座棒球世界大赛奖杯,”他开始说道。“或者我可能和电台司令乐队的主唱汤姆·约克一同在东京聊天。但我却在这里,在伯克莱,和你们一起。要知道,你们非常幸运。”他的嘲讽、风度和诙谐言语为他赢得了加州的掌声。因为在这里的是村上春树,一位日本作家,问候他的美国读者,用他们的语言,虽然未必用他们的幽默感。世上有两个村上春树—一个在他的祖国躲避关注,另一个拥抱这样的爱戴与荣誉,在纽约,在旧金山,在其他美洲与欧洲的大城市,也在《纽约客》杂志上。但对于全世界的村上迷,更别说处境艰难的出版界,两个似乎远远不够。

 

The Harukists, Disappointed-

http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2012/10/the-harukists-disappointed.html?mbid=nl_Daily%20(101)


「永遠站在雞蛋的那方」 村上春樹

村上春樹在2009年獲頒耶路撒冷文學獎,他的得獎演講辭「永遠站在雞蛋的那方」

Today, I have no intention of lying.
今天,我不打算說謊。

I have come to Jerusalem today as a novelist, which is to say as a professional spinner of lies.
今天我以一名小說家的身分來到耶路撒冷。而小說家,正是所謂的職業謊言製造者。

Of course, novelists are not the only ones who tell lies. Politicians do it, too, as we all know. Diplomats and military men tell their own kinds of lies on occasion, as do used car salesmen, butchers and builders.
當然,不只小說家會說謊。眾所周知,政治人物也會說謊。外交官、將軍、二手車業務員、屠夫和建築師亦不例外。

The lies of novelists differ from others, however, in that no one criticizes the novelist as immoral for telling them. Indeed, the bigger and better his lies and the more ingeniously he creates them, the more he is likely to be praised by the public and the critics. Why should that be?
但是小說家的謊言和其他人不同。沒有人會責怪小說家說謊不道德。相反地,小說家愈努力說謊,把謊言說得愈大愈好,大眾和評論家反而愈讚賞他。為什麼?

My answer would be this: Namely, that by telling skillful lies – which is to say, by making up fictions that appear to be true – the novelist can bring a truth out to a new location and shine a new light on it.
我的答案是:藉由高超的謊言,也就是創作出幾可亂真的小說情節,小說家才能將真相帶到新的地方,也才能賦予它新的光輝。

In most cases, it is virtually impossible to grasp a truth in its original form and depict it accurately. This is why we try to grab its tail by luring the truth from its hiding place, transferring it to a fictional location, and replacing it with a fictional form.
在大多數的情況下,我們幾乎無法掌握真相,也無法精準的描繪真相。因此,必須把真相從藏匿處挖掘出來,轉化到另一個虛構的時空,用虛構的形式來表達。

In order to accomplish this, however, we first have to clarify where the truth lies within us. This is an important qualification for making up good lies.
但是在此之前,我們必須先清楚知道,真相就在我們心中的某處。這是小說家編造好謊言的必要條件。

Today, however, I have no intention of lying. I will try to be as honest as I can. There are a few days in the year when I do not engage in telling lies, and today happens to be one of them.
今天,我不打算說謊。我會盡可能地誠實。我在一年之中只有幾天不會說謊,今天剛好就是其中之一。

So let me tell you the truth. A fair number of people advised me not to come here to accept the Jerusalem Prize. Some even warned me they would instigate a boycott of my books if I came.
請容我告訴你們真相。在日本,許多人建議我不要來這裡接受耶路撒冷文學獎。甚至有人警告我,如果我堅持前來,他們會聯合抵制我的小說。

The reason for this, of course, was the fierce battle that was raging in Gaza. The UN reported that more than a thousand people had lost their lives in the blockaded Gaza City, many of them unarmed citizens – children and old people.
主要的原因,當然是迦薩正在發生的激烈戰鬥。根據聯合國調查,在被封鎖的迦薩城內,已經有超過千人喪生,許多人是手無寸鐵的平民、孩童和老人。

Any number of times after receiving notice of the award, I asked myself whether traveling to Israel at a time like this and accepting a literary prize was the proper thing to do, whether this would create the impression that I supported one side in the conflict, that I endorsed the policies of a nation that chose to unleash its overwhelming military power. This is an impression, of course, that I would not wish to give. I do not approve of any war, and I do not support any nation. Neither, of course, do I wish to see my books subjected to a boycott.
我收到獲獎通知後,不斷問自己:此時到耶路撒冷接受文學獎,是否正確?這會不會讓人認為我支持衝突中的某一方,或認為我支持一個發動壓倒性武力攻擊的國家 政策?老實說,我也不想看到自己的書被抵制。

Finally, however, after careful consideration, I made up my mind to come here. One reason for my decision was that all too many people advised me not to do it. Perhaps, like many other novelists, I tend to do the exact opposite of what I am told. If people are telling me – and especially if they are warning me – “don’t go there,” “don’t do that,” I tend to want to “go there” and “do that.”
經過反覆思考,我還是決定來到這裡。原因之一是,太多人反對我來。我和許多小說家一樣,總是要做人們反對的事情。如果有人對我說,尤其是警告我說,「不要 去」、「不要這麼做」,我通常反而會特別想去、特別想做。

It’s in my nature, you might say, as a novelist. Novelists are a special breed. They cannot genuinely trust anything they have not seen with their own eyes or touched with their own hands.
這就是小說家的天性。小說家是特別的族群,除非親眼所見,親手觸摸,否則他們不會相信任何事情。

And that is why I am here. I chose to come here rather than stay away. I chose to see for myself rather than not to see. I chose to speak to you rather than to say nothing.
我來到這裡,我選擇親身面對而非置身事外;我選擇親眼目睹而非矇蔽雙眼;我選擇開口說話,而非沉默不語。

This is not to say that I am here to deliver a political message. To make judgments about right and wrong is one of the novelist’s most important duties, of course. It is left to each writer, however, to decide upon the form in which he or she will convey those judgments to others. I myself prefer to transform them into stories – stories that tend toward the surreal. Which is why I do not intend to stand before you today delivering a direct political message.
但是這不代表我要發表任何政治訊息。判斷對錯,當然是小說家的重要責任,但如何傳遞判斷,每個作家有不同的選擇。我個人偏好用故事、尤其用超現實的故事來 表達。因此,我今天不會在你們面前發表任何直接的政治訊息。

Please do, however, allow me to deliver one very personal message. It is something that I always keep in mind while I am writing fiction. I have never gone so far as to write it on a piece of paper and paste it to the wall: Rather, it is carved into the wall of my mind, and it goes something like this:
不過,請容我在這裡向你們傳達一個非常私人的訊息。這是我創作時永遠牢記在心的話語。我從未將這句話真正行諸文字或貼在牆壁,而是刻劃在我心靈深處的牆 上。這句話是這樣的:

“Between a high, solid wall and an egg that breaks against it, I will always stand on the side of the egg.” Yes, no matter how right the wall may be and how wrong the egg, I will stand with the egg.
「以卵擊石,在高大堅硬的牆和雞蛋之間,我永遠站在雞蛋那方。」 無論高牆是多麼正確,雞蛋是多麼地錯誤,我永遠站在雞蛋這邊。

Someone else will have to decide what is right and what is wrong; perhaps time or history will decide. If there were a novelist who, for whatever reason, wrote works standing with the wall, of what value would such works be?
誰是誰非,自有他人、時間、歷史來定論。但若小說家無論何種原因,寫出站在高牆這方的作品,這作品豈有任何價值可言?

What is the meaning of this metaphor? In some cases, it is all too simple and clear. Bombers and tanks and rockets and white phosphorus shells are that high, solid wall. The eggs are the unarmed civilians who are crushed and burned and shot by them. This is one meaning of the metaphor.
這代表什麼意思呢?轟炸機、戰車、火箭和白磷彈就是那堵高牆;而被它們壓碎、燒焦和射殺的平民則是雞蛋。這是這個比喻的其中一層涵義。

This is not all, though. It carries a deeper meaning. Think of it this way. Each of us is, more or less, an egg. Each of us is a unique, irreplaceable soul enclosed in a fragile shell.
更深一層的看,我們每個人,也或多或少都是一枚雞蛋。我們都是獨一無二,裝在脆弱外殼中的靈魂。

This is true of me, and it is true of each of you. And each of us, to a greater or lesser degree, is confronting a high, solid wall. The wall has a name: It is The System. The System is supposed to protect us, but sometimes it takes on a life of its own, and then it begins to kill us and cause us to kill others – coldly, efficiently, systematically.
你我也或多或少,都必須面對一堵名為「體制」的高牆。體制照理應該保護我們,但有時它卻殘殺我們,或迫使我們冷酷、有效率、系統化地殘殺別人。

We made The System.
是我們創造了體制

I have only one reason to write novels, and that is to bring the dignity of the individual soul to the surface and shine a light upon it.
我寫小說只有一個原因,就是給予每個靈魂尊嚴,讓它們得以沐浴在陽光之下。

The purpose of a story is to sound an alarm, to keep a light trained on The System in order to prevent it from tangling our souls in its web and demeaning them.
故事的目的在於提醒世人,在於檢視體制,避免它馴化我們的靈魂、剝奪靈魂的意義。

I fully believe it is the novelist’s job to keep trying to clarify the uniqueness of each individual soul by writing stories – stories of life and death, stories of love, stories that make people cry and quake with fear and shake with laughter. This is why we go on, day after day, concocting fictions with utter seriousness.
我深信小說家的職責就是透過創作故事,關於生死、愛情、讓人感動落淚、恐懼顫抖或開懷大笑的故事,讓人們意識到每個靈魂的獨一無二和不可取代。這就是我們 為何日復一日,如此嚴肅編織小說的原因。

My father died last year at the age of 90. He was a retired teacher and a part-time Buddhist priest. When he was in graduate school, he was drafted into the army and sent to fight in China.
我九十歲的父親去年過世。他是位退休老師和兼職的和尚。當他在京都的研究所念書時,被強制徵召到中國打仗。

As a child born after the war, I used to see him every morning before breakfast offering up long, deeply-felt prayers at the Buddhist altar in our house.
身為戰後出生的小孩,我很好奇為何他每天早餐前,都在家中佛壇非常虔誠地祈禱。

One time I asked him why he did this, and he told me he was praying for the people who had died in the war. He was praying for all the people who died, he said, both ally and enemy alike.
有一次我問他原因,他說他是在為所有死於戰爭的人們祈禱,無論是戰友或敵人。

Staring at his back as he knelt at the altar, I seemed to feel the shadow of death hovering around him.
看著他跪在佛壇前的背影,我似乎感受到周遭環繞著死亡的陰影。

My father died, and with him he took his memories, memories that I can never know. But the presence of death that lurked about him remains in my own memory. It is one of the few things I carry on from him, and one of the most important.
我父親過世了,帶走那些我永遠無法盡知的記憶。但環繞他周遭那些死亡的陰影卻留在我的記憶中。這是我從他身上繼承的少數東西之一,卻也是最重要的東西之一。

I have only one thing I hope to convey to you today. We are all human beings, individuals transcending nationality and race and religion, fragile eggs faced with a solid wall called The System.
今天,我只希望能向你們傳達一個訊息。我們都是人類,超越國籍、種族和宗教,我們都只是一枚面對體制高牆的脆弱雞蛋。

To all appearances, we have no hope of winning. The wall is too high, too strong – and too cold.
無論怎麼看,我們都毫無勝算。牆實在是太高、太堅硬,也太過冷酷了。

If we have any hope of victory at all, it will have to come from our believing in the utter uniqueness and irreplaceability of our own and others’ souls and from the warmth we gain by joining souls together.
戰勝它的唯一可能,只來自於我們全心相信每個靈魂都是獨一無二的,只來自於我們全心相信靈魂彼此融合,所能產生的溫暖。

Take a moment to think about this. Each of us possesses a tangible, living soul. The System has no such thing.
請花些時間思考這點:我們每個人都擁有獨特而活生生的靈魂,體制卻沒有。

We must not allow The System to exploit us. We must not allow The System to take on a life of its own.
我們不能允許體制剝削我們,我們不能允許體制自行其道。

The System did not make us: We made The System.
體制並未創造我們:是我們創造了體制。

That is all I have to say to you.
這就是我想對你們說的。

I am grateful to have been awarded the Jerusalem Prize. I am grateful that my books are being read by people in many parts of the world. And I am glad to have had the opportunity to speak to you here today.
我很感謝能夠獲得耶路撒冷文學獎。我很感謝世界各地有那麼多的讀者。我很高興有機會向各位發表演說。

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